Environmental change will lead to ‘new’ ecosystems in the future - but how will those most affected adapt? This ESPA project is answering this question by studying farmers in India confronted with a highly invasive species. Lantana camara has affected bamboo basket making, cattle grazing and forest safety. Whilst many responses have improved livelihoods, tribal differences show that culture, knowledge, values, and attitudes also affect people’s responses to change. Allowing for these influences presents major challenges for policies and programmes seeking to support human adaptation and conserve biodiversity.