This project explored how issues of justice affect the ecological and socio-economic outcomes of conservation policies. Questions such as what represents a fair trade-off, or who should receive benefits, participate in decisions and be recognised as a stakeholder, are ubiquitous in management decisions and conflicts over resources — but usually remain implicit. If not addressed, the social dividends from natural resources may not reach those who need them most. And stakeholders may not lend the required support to investments in ecosystem services. To advance the concept of ‘just ecosystem management’, the researchers consulted with local and national policymakers.